POS 6292: RELIGION AND POLITICS
Dr. Kenneth Wald
Email: kenwald@ufl.edu
Fall, 2014
Department of Political Science
Thursday, 8th-10th periods
303 Anderson Hall
3:00-6:00
352-273-2391
Anderson 13
Hours: TU 8:30-10:30; TH 10:00-11 or by appointment Section 1H53

"When I was a grad student, I was not at all interested in religion because it was so obvious -- all the major intellectuals knew -- it was dropping off the map. Why waste your time on something that maybe 20, 30 years from now won't even be there; so why bother? That was colossally wrong, as we all now know."
Ronald Inglehart, "Is There a Global Resurgence of Religion?"

" . . .the only place in the world where the French type of 1905, aggressive, religiously unfriendly secularism co-exists easily with modern democracy is in academic texts.

"Mother went to church the way some ladies go to basketball games, to be sociable, not because they care who wins, and that’s how Mother felt about the gospel of the Lord—it was for other people to agonize over. What she cared about was being with Gladys and Margaret and Florence and feeding the hungry and covering the chilly with warm quilts."  
—Garrison Keillor, Pontoon (2007)

"The West misread the 21st century. This is not an age of secular ideologies. It is an era of desecularisation. Our greatest challenge is not political or economic or military. It is in the deepest sense spiritual. No one expected this and we have not been equal to it."
--Rabbi (Lord) Jonathan Sacks
Subject: As Ronald Inglehart observes, religion was once considered an archaic force destined to wither away as nations underwent rapid economic development. Like Mark Twain, reports of religion's death proved greatly exaggerated and religion has gained renewed interest as a factor in contemporary political life. Political Science, a discipline once largely dismissive of religion as a factor in contemporary public life, has lately atoned for this sin by investing heavily in the study of religion as a political force. This seminar introduces the major social scientific theories of religion and applies them to understanding the interaction between religion and political life. Given the breadth of research conducted under this heading, the seminar can only scratch the surface. The major goal is to acquaint you with the theories, concepts, and measures used to make sense of religion in politics so that you can employ these tools in your own research and teaching. You'll note that the syllabus is arranged thematically rather than by geography, time period, or some other scheme. The course is distinctive in three ways: (1) It is intended primarily as a review of relevant literature. (2) It does not focus on normative questions. (3) It is conceived as a comparative enterprise with the goal of speaking across the traditional divisions within the discipline and borrowing heavily from other scholarly disciplines where appropriate.

Course Format: The course will include a mixture of lectures and student-led discussion. Your grade will have four components:

(1) The first of these, accounting for 10%, will be based on your leadership of discussion about an assigned block of readings (typically 5-6 articles/chapters). You may sign up for any of the weekly sessions beginning with September 11th. (In weeks with longer reading lists, the material will be split among discussion leaders.) In leading class discussion, you will be asked to identify major themes, focus on conceptual weaknesses and problems, discuss methodological approaches, suggest alternative formulations, tie individual studies to larger theoretical traditions, and otherwise provide context and assessment of the material. You will be graded on your preparation, the thoughtfulness of your questions, and the quality of the discussion you provoke. Students who are leading discussion sessions should plan on meeting with me well before class to review plans.

(2) For another 50% of the grade, you will prepare a paper that is due in draft form on November 27th and in final (hard copy) form on Monday, December 10th. There are two options: (a) a topical review essay organized around some theme or subject relevant to the seminar or (b) an empirical paper relevant to religion and politics. Some possible themes for the literature review could include African-American religion and politics, religion and politics in a particular country, region or tradition, the role of religion in violent conflict, the concept of fundamentalism, religion and abortion, the political role of clergy, etc. The review, which may be conceptual, empirical or theoretical, should cover at least three scholarly books or fifteen journal articles or some combination of those. As always, think about this as a way to consider the literature for potential thesis topics. For some good advice about what a literature review should include, consult the Toronto site here or the UNC site here. In considering an empirical paper, there are a large number of data sets available for secondary analysis through ICPSR, ARDA or the Roper Center. Depending on your interests, you may wish to replicate an existing study with new data or address a question or issue that has occurred to you independently. Whatever your choice of options, the subject of your paper must be approved by me in advance. The best way to do that is to meet me during office hours or at another time that works for both of us. I have reserved the final two class periods of the semester for oral presentations of your preliminary findings.
(3) The third component, worth 30%, is a take-home examination to be administered at mid-semester. It will include a number of essay questions about the readings and course material for the seminar. The exam will be distributed on October 2nd and is due back by the end of the day on October 9th.
(4) The remaining 10% of your grade will be determined by the quality of your participation. I pay more attention to quality than quantity but students who miss class will not do well on this component.
This course utilizes the electronic course reserve service offered by the George A. Smathers Libraries. Under the Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act, students with disabilities have the right to equal access, use and benefit of the course materials that have been placed on reserve in the Libraries. Students who have registered with the University of Florida Disability Resource Center should initiate their request for assistance and accommodation in accessing these materials. More specifically,
  •         The Center will work with the Libraries Course Reserve Unit to provide accessible course materials.
  •         All information submitted by the student to the Libraries in fulfilling the request for accommodation will be kept confidential.
  •         For more information on services for students with disabilities, contact the University of Florida Disability Resource Center  at 352-392-8565 or at accessuf@dso.ufl.edu.
  •         For general information on course reserves, please contact the Course Reserves Unit at 352-273-2520, or email at eres@uflib.ufl.edu.
  •     For questions about UF policy, contact the Disabilities Resource Center.
Americanists might also want to skim my Religion and Politics in the United States (6th edition, Rowman & Littlefield, 2011) and consult the Oxford Handbook of Religion and American Politics (Oxford University Press, 2009) or the Routledge Handbook of Religion and Politics (Routledge 2009). There are three very useful websites that I monitor frequently and I can recommend to you. The first, maintained by the Pew Center's Religion and Public Life Project, is probably the single best site to keep up to date with new developments in the world of religion and (mostly) American politics. I also recommend The Immanent Frame, a blog maintained by the Social Science Research Council that attracts stimulating observations, discussions, insights and other contributions from a diverse group of academic commentators. The Association of Religious Data Archives (ARDA) is much more than its name suggests and is fast becoming the first place researchers consult. Its "Religion Research Hub" is especially valuable.

Most of the readings are available on-line through the link that is indicated. If you find an article with a broken link, please inform me by email as soon as possible. For access to most online articles, you will be required either to be on the UF network or to be logged in remotely to the UF Library through VPN or a proxy server. Book chapters will be available through the ARES. I will try to enable ARES to be accessed through the Sakai e-learning site but you can also get to it via the library site if you use the campus network or have an active VPN connection. If you can't access an article or chapter from this page, please let me know ASAP so I can fix the link.

Schedule: Asterisk indicates the readings are intended for students electing a Ph.D comp question on this topic and are optional for everyone else. Double asterisk means the reading is optional for students in a Ph.D track but required for everyone else.

Week 1 (August 25) - Orientation and Overview (Anderson 303)

Week 2 (September 4) - Social Science Approaches to Religion

Six Perspectives on Politicizing Religion
Kristi Andersen, "Sources of Pro-Family Belief," Political Psychology 9 (1988): 229-243 (Tuten)
Stefanie Sinclair, "National Identity and the Politics of the ‘Headscarf Debate’ in Germany," Culture and Religion 13 (2012): 19-39 (Jean)
Kristen Luker, Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood (1985), chs. 6-7 (Christ)
Thomas K. Bias et. al., "Catholics & the Death Penalty: Religion as a Filter for Political Beliefs." Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion 7: Article 10 (Mendelson)
Gary Adler, "Congregational Political Activity and Same Sex Marriage," Sociological Quarterly 55 (2014): 555-586 (Peña-Vasquez)
Anna Greenberg, "The Church & the Revitalization of Politics and Community," Political Science Quarterly 115 (2000), 377-394 (Brooks)

Background Theories & Concepts
*Pals, Eight Theories, chaps. 2 (Freud), 3 (Durkheim), 4 (Marx), 5 (Weber), 8 (Geertz)
*Larry Iannaccone, "Vodoo Economics: Reviewing the Rational Choice Approach to Religion," Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 34 (March, 1995), 76-88

Conceptualizing and Defining Religion
Don Yoder, "Toward a Definition of Folk Religion," Western Folklore 33 (1974), 2-15
Adam B. Cohen et al., "Social Versus Individual Motivation: Implications for Normative Definitions of Religious Orientation," Personality and Social Psychology Review 9 (2005), 48-61 
Kenneth D. Wald & Corwin E. Smidt, "Measurement Strategies in .. . Religion & Politics," in Rediscovering the Relig. Factor in American Politics (Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe, 1993), 26-49.

Political Science Perspectives
Kenneth D. Wald and Clyde Wilcox, "Has Political Science Rediscovered the Faith Factor?" APSR 100 (2006), 523-529
*Steven Kettell, "Has Political Science Ignored Religion?", PS: Political Science & Politics 45 (2012): 93-100.

Week 3 (September 11) - Cultural Models I: Theoretical Perspectives  [Disc. ]

Kenneth D. Wald, Adam Silverman and Kevin Fridy, "Making Sense of Religion in Public Life," Annual Review of Political Science 8 (2005), 121-143
Aaron Wildavsky, "Choosing Preferences by Constructing Institutions: A Cultural Theory of Preference Formation," APSR 81 (1987): 3-21.
Josh Adams and Vincent Roscigno, "White Supremacists,Oppositional Culture and the World Wide Web," Social Forces 84 (2005), 759-778
Ann Swidler, "Culture in Action: Symbols and Strategies," American Sociological Review 51 (1986), 273-286.

*Kenneth D.Wald & David C. Leege, "Culture, Religion & American Political Life," Oxford Handbook of Religion and American Politics (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009),129-63

Week 4 (September 18) - Cultural Models II: Case Studies of Religion and Political Conflict  [Disc. ]


Nash, Rituals of Resistance in Bolivia (chapter 4 in Smith)
Nepstad, Popular Religion in Nicaragua and Salvador (chapter 5 in Smith)
Galia Sabar Friedman, "The Power of the Familiar: Everyday Practices in the Anglican Church of Kenya (CPK)," Journal of Church and State 38 (1996), 377-395

David L. Chappell, "Religious Revivalism in the Civil Rights Movement," African American Review 36 (2002): 581-595.
Ben Hillman, "The Rise of the Community in Rural China: Village Politics, Cultural Identity and Religious Revival in a Hui Hamlet." China Journal 51 (2004), 53-73.
Eyes on the Prize: King in Birmingham, AL (starts at 44:00)

Week 5 (September 25) - Organizational Theories (resource mobilization) [Disc. Mendelson ]

Morris, Black Church in the Civil Rights Movement (chapter 1 in Smith)
Salehi, Islamic Insurgency in Iran (chapter 2 in Smith)
James Findlay, "Religion and Politics in the Sixties: The Churches and the Civil Rights Act of 1964," Journal of American History 77 (1990): 66-93.
Gregory A. Smith, "The Influence of Priests on the Political Attitudes of Roman Catholics," Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 44 (2005), 291-306
Sidney Verba et al., "Race, Ethnicity and Political Resources: Participation in the United States," British Journal of Political Science 23 (1993): 453-497.

---Midterm will be distributed on October 2nd and is due back in class on October 9th ---

Week 6
(October 2) - Structural Theories (political opportunity structure) [Disc. Peña-Vasquez]


Borer, Church Leadership in South African anti-apartheid movement (chapter 6 in Smith)

Timothy Byrnes,Catholic Bishops in American Politics, chaps. 3-4 (pp. 35-67)

Ronald Kaye, "The Politics of Religious Slaughter of Animals: Strategies for Ethno-Religious Political Action," New Community 19 (1993), 235-250.
Anthony Gill and Erik Lundsgaarde, "State Welfare Spending and Religiosity," Rationality & Society 16 (2004): 399-436.
Esther Kaplan, "Follow the Money," Nation, November 1, 2004, 20-3

Week 7 (October 9) - Individual-Level Psychological and Sociological Factors [Disc. Tuten]

Gordon Allport and James Ross, "Personal Religious Orientation and Prejudice," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 5 (1967): 432-443
James M. Glaser,  "Toward an Explanation of the Racial Liberalism of American Jews," Political Research Quarterly 50 (1997), 437-458
Laura A. Reese, Ronald E. Brown & James David Ivers, "Some Children See Him...: Political Participation and the Black Christ," Political Behavior 20 (2007), 517-37
**Duane Alwin et. al, "Measuring Religious Identities in Surveys," Public Opinion Quarterly 70 2006), 530-64
**Bethany Albertson, "Religious Appeals and Implicit Attitudes," Political Psychology 32 (2011): 109-130.
Brian Robert Calfano and Paul A. Djupe, "God Talk: Religious Cues and Electoral Support," Political Research Quarterly 62 (2009) 329-339

Week 8 (October 16) - Contextual and Group Influence (social networks, interpersonal influence) [Disc. Brooks]

Kenneth D. Wald, Dennis Owen and Samuel S. Hill, "Churches as Political Communities," American Political Science Review 82 (1988): 531-548
Jerome Himmelstein, "The Social Bases of Antifeminism: Religious Networks and Culture," Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 25, no. 1 (1986): 1-15.

Michael Welch & David Leege, "Dual Reference Groups and Political Orientations: An Examination of Evangelically Oriented Catholics," Amer. J. of Political. Sci 35 (1991): 28-56.
**Todd Adkins et al., "Religious Group Cues and Citizen Policy Attitudes in the United States," Politics and Religion 6 (2013): 235-263
**Bryan McLaughlin and David Wise, "Cueing God: Religious Cues and Voter Support," Politics and Religion 7 (2014): 366-394
Robert Wuthnow & Valerie Lewis, "Religion & Altruistic U.S. Foreign Policy Goals: Evidence From a National Survey" Journal for the Sci. Study of Religion 47 (2008): 191-209.
David Campbell, "Acts of Faith: Churches and Political Engagement," Political Behavior 26 (2004), 155-80:

Week 9 (October 23) - TBA

Week 10 (October 30) -   Religion and Globalization [Disc. Jean]

*Daniel Philpott, "Has the Study of Global Politics Found Religion?" Annual Review of Political Science 12 (2009), 183–202
Jeff Haynes, "Transnational Religious Actors and International Politics," Third World Quarterly 22 (2001), 143-158
Kevin Warr, "The Normative Promise of Religious Organizations in Global Civil Society," Journal of Church and State 41: (1999), 499-524
Kenneth Wald and Michael Martinez, "Jewish Religiosity and Political Attitudes in the United States and Israel," Political Behavior 23 (2001), 377-397.
Larissa Baia, "Rethinking Transnationalism: Reconstructing National Identities among Peruvian Caths in NJ," Journal of Interamerican Studies & World Affairs 41 (1999), 93-110


Week 11 (November 6) -  Religion, State and Nation [Disc. Christ]

Jonathan Fox, "World Separation of Religion and State into the 21st Century," Comparative Political Studies 39 (2006), 537-69

Eric McDaniel et al., "Divine Boundaries: How Religion Shapes Citizens’ Attitudes toward Immigrants." American Politics Research 39 (2011): 205-233.
Charles M. North and Carl R. North, "Religious Freedom and the Unintended Consequences of State Religion," Southern Economic Journal 71 (2004), 103-17
Michael Angrosino, "Civil Religion Redux," Anthropological Quarterly 75 (2002), 239-67
Merlin Gustafson, "The Religious Role of the President," Midwest Journal of Political Science 14 (1970), 708-722
*Ivan Iveković, "Nationalism & the Use and Abuse of Relig.: The Politicization of Orthodoxy, Catholicism & Islam in Yugoslav Successor States," Social Compass 49 (2002), 523-36


Week 12 (November 13) -  Religion and Democracy [Disc. ]

Aho, Popular Christianity and Extremism (chapter 9 in Smith)
Stathis N. Kalyvas, "Democracy and Religious Politics: Evidence from Belgium," Comparative Political Studies 31 (1998) 292-320.
Newton J. Gaskill, "Rethinking Protestantism and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America," Sociology of Religion 58 (1997), 69-91.

Kimberly H. Conger and Bryan T. McGraw, "Religious Conservatives and the Requirements of Citizenship: Political Autonomy," Perspectives on Politics 6 (2008): 253-266.
Charles S. Liebman, "Extremism as a Religious Norm," Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 22 (1983): 75-86
Daniel Philpott, "Explaining the Political Ambivalence of Religion," American Political Science Review 101 (2007): 505-525.
Nicole Fox, "“God Must Have Been Sleeping”: Faith as an Obstacle and a Resource for Rwandan Genocide Survivors." Journal for the Sci. Study of Relig. 51 (2012): 65-78.

Week 13 (November 20) - NO CLASS DUE TO THANKSGIVING HOLIDAY

Week 14 (November 27) - Secularism [Disc. ]

Jeffrey Hadden, "Toward Desacralizing Secularization Theory," Social Forces 65 (1987), 587-611
Ahmet Kuru, "Passive and Aggressive Secularism," World Politics 59 (2007), 568-594
Eva Garroutte, "The Positivist Attack on Baconian Science . . .in The Secular Revolution (Berkeley,: Univ. of California Press, 2003), 197-215
Stephen Mockabee, Kenneth D. Wald & David C. Leege, Is There a Religious Left? (2009)
Ruth Braunstein, "Storytelling in Liberal Religious Advocacy." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 51 (2012): 110-127.

Week 15 (December 4) - Paper Presentations